Sedentary behaviour is defined as any waking activity that involves the expenditure of < 1.5 metabolic equivalents while in a sitting, lying or reclining position. Reduced prolonged sedentary behaviour (> 6 hours per day) has been found to improve negative health outcomes such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Louise wants to test the effectiveness of two interventions developed to reduce sedentary behaviour in university students. Twenty-four undergraduate students were invited to take part in the study and were randomised into one of two groups: skills-based training or education-based training. Participants in the skills-based training group were taught skills such as standing techniques while completing traditionally sedentary tasks. Participants in the education group were provided online talks by sedentary behaviour experts on the dangers of prolonged sedentary behaviour and the importance of reducing it.
Louise is interested in the following:
· Are sedentary behaviour scores significantly different depending on what group students were in? · Are there significant differences between sedentary behaviour scores at baseline and follow-up?
· Do sedentary behaviour scores differ significantly as a function of the interaction between intervention group and time? Louise has assessed sedentary behaviour by measuring students’ time spent sedentary per week using the sedentary behaviour section of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Each student had their weekly sedentary time measured at baseline and follow-up.
1. Assuming the data is parametric, conduct the appropriate analysis, including post hoc analyses if necessary.
2. Write a results section in APA format, incorporating results from the SPSS output, tables and graphs as appropriate.
Virtual reality immerses the user in a completely digital world that can simulate the real world as well as fictitious worlds. One use of virtual reality in psychological research is simulating real-world stressful events as a way of training individuals to become more resilient to them in their everyday lives. One common stressor that is tested in virtual reality is a fear of heights.
Kevin is interested in testing how effective various virtual reality equipment are at inducing stress in participants. For this experiment, participants were immersed in a virtual environment where they were standing on a plank on top of a skyscraper. Kevin recruited 18 participants from his local community, all aged between 18 and 25. Participants took part in three different virtual reality conditions over the course of three days (one condition per day): a non-immersive condition where participants were watching the simulation on a 2-D monitor; an immersive condition where participants wore a head-mounted display in a 2×2 square metre room enabling them to walk along the virtual plank freely and; a final immersive condition where participants also wore a head-mounted display but were asked to stand on a real plank to enhance immersion while standing on a virtual plank on top of a skyscraper. After each condition, participants were asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).
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