In Beyond Terror and Martyrdom (2009), Gilles Kepel presents his “clash of two grand narratives” view of Al-Qaida’s evolution and the U.S. response to it. Kepel’s account leaves off at the conclusion of President George W. Bush’s administration and touches on the challenges left to the Obama administration, which succeeded it. Briefly describe Kepel’s “grand clash” narrative. How did the Obama administration’s counterterrorism approach grow out of Bush’s War on Terror and seek to address Kepel’s three “axes of crisis”?
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